Definitions in each partner country


In Austria the apprenticeship system consists of part-time Vocational Education and Training (theory and general subjects) in VET schools and training in companies. It is part of the IVET system of Austria at upper secondary level of education (lSCED 4A).

This system is regulated by law (Bundesausbildungs-gesetz - BAG) and training plans for each profession are set as a law. Young people can become apprentices from the age of 15.




In France, the same definition as the one developed at EU level applies. There is necessarily a contractual relationship between the employer and the apprentice.

There are criteria of age (16-30 years old) and professional experience. The duration of the contract is 1 to 3 years.





In Germany, there is a distinction between two types of VET: school-based apprenticeship and dual training. The latter is by far the dominating VET system. There are around 320 officially recognised occupations.

The dual system is characterised by three main stakeholders: a) the vocational school that is owned and operated by the state and puts an emphasis on theoretical learning; b) private companies that put an emphasis on hands-on practical learning and c) the chambers (“competent authority”) that have monitoring and certifying functions.

Apprentices have a contract with the training company and receive monthly remuneration. There are no requirements by law for young people to access apprenticeships. Beyond, there are pre-vocational training measures available for young people that did not succeed in finding an apprenticeship position or are in need of upgrading their knowledge and competences.




Apprenticeship in Greece refers to the practical training of students attending universities, technical schools and other upper-secondary educational organisations in enterprises with activities close to their field of studies.

The Greek Manpower Organisation is responsible for the implementation of apprenticeship programmes and provides funding to enterprises hiring trainees to contribute to their salary.





An apprenticeship (dual system) is a type of Work-Based Learning in which learners spend the majority of their time acquiring skills at employers’ premises, (mainly craftsmen) after a contract is signed between an employer and an apprentice (juvenile worker 16-18 year olds). Learning at school takes place two days a week (theoretical knowledge: general and vocational).

This type of dual system is designed for students from basic vocational schools (around 61% of them are apprentices/juvenile workers). There are two forms of apprenticeship training in Poland: occupational training and training to perform a specific job.




 In May 2017, the Apprenticeship Act was introduced and it presents the basis for the pilot implementation of apprenticeship in four 3-years programs in the school year 2017/2018: metal sharper-toolmaker, joiner, stonemason and gastronomic and hotel services. At least 50% of the program is carried out in the company as a work-based learning. The apprenticeship contract is signed by an apprentice and the company, but it has no elements of employment. The apprentice has the status of a student of upper-secondary vocational school.

In Slovenia, all students of vocational and technical school spend some weeks at work-based learning in companies. Duration depends on the type of educational program and profession.




In Spain there is a legal framework for apprenticeship, where apprenticeship is defined as a tool to promote job placement and training of young people, in a scheme that mixes paid working activities with training in the National Vocational Training System or in the Educational System.






Apprenticeships are defined as full-time paid jobs that incorporate on and off the job training. They are available to anyone over the age of 16. They combine working with studying for a work-based qualification – from GCSEs or equivalent to degree level. Apprenticeships can last from one to four years.

A successful apprentice will qualify with a nationally recognised qualification on completion of their contract. Apprentices have the same rights as other employees and are entitled to be paid at least the apprentice rate of the national minimum wage.



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